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what a good breeder should know
Breeder skills and supplies - What EVERY breeder should know!

A well-educated breeder paired with a well-educated veterinary staff and a veterinarian willing to learn from their breeder-clients make a formidable team. Veterinarians and veterinary staff can learn as much from their breeder-clients as they can learn from us.
Puppies require 22 to 26 kcal per 100 gm of body weight for the first 12 weeks. This translates into 13 ml of formula per 100 grams of body weight per day per pup for the first seven days. This increases to 17 ml/100 gm for week two, 10 ml/ 100 gm body weight for week three, and 22 ml/100 gm body weight for week four. This should be divided into a minimum of four feedings per day.
Another easy to remember formula is based on the stomach capacity of the newborn, rather than a caloric intake. A neonate stomach can accommodate one ml = (one cc) of formula per one oz of body weight. However, the first several feedings should be approximately 30% lower than the calculated formula to allow for the stomach capacity to accommodate this volume. A smaller quantity should also be fed if he pup appears to have nursed. The stomach can be gently palpated prior to feeding to estimate
fullness. Puppy milk replacer formulas can be purchased commercially, made at home with a recipe, or goat’s milk can be used. The commercially available formulas are preferred as their amino acid and fat/protein ratios most closely match bitch’s milk. Pups fed homemade diets or goats milk often develop nutritional cataracts. Antibiotics should be considered a first line of defense and started immediately for any sick or debilitated pup. This includes pups born distressed, with diarrhea, with meconium in the fetal fluids, or born after a protracted labor. They should be started at the first sign of illness. The decision to treat the affected pup only or the entire litter is a clinical decision and will vary from case to case. Antibiotics can be administered to neonates through the same routes that are labeled for an adult dog. Critically ill or septic pups should have antibiotics administered by injection, not by PO route. Many of these bacteria in pups are are relatively antibiotic sensitive. This, and the immature metabolism of a neonate, make penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and cephalexin antibiotics of first choice.

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