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herbs U can use
Bells Ferry Veterinary Hospital Acworth, GA, USA.


NUTRACEUTICAL SUPPLEMENTATION The North American Veterinary Nutraceutical Council defines a nutraceutical as "a substance which is produced in a purified or extracted form and administered orally to patients to provide agents required for normal body structure and function and administered with the intent of improving the health and well being of animals." Herbs are not considered nutraceuticals. 
Antioxidants When oxidative activity exceeds antioxidant potential, damage may occur to cell lipids, protein, and DNA. Endogenous or dietary antioxidants control damage that may be induced during cellular metabolism by ROS scavenging, regulating cell-cell communication, second messenger pathways, or regulating apoptosis or inflammatory events. Antioxidants include certain vitamins, minerals, enzymes, carotenoids; other substances such as flavonoids and melatonin also have antioxidant activity. Animal studies suggest that certain antioxidants may reduce liver damage and fibrosis (vitamin E, milk thistle flavonolignans, SAMe), reverse or improve the signs of cognitive dysfunction (vitamin E, C), improve respiratory function in human COPD patients as well as immune function in humans and laboratory animals (vitamin E), improve signs of osteoarthritis in dogs (flavonoids, superoxide dismutase), and decrease exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans. Whether antioxidants can help prevent immunosuppression due to hard exercise in horses is an active field of research. 
Our knowledge of nutraceutical use of antioxidants is still in its infancy, as cautions are published about high doses having possible pro-oxidant activity, or interfering with the benefits of fish oil or chemotherapy in cancer patients. Some (such as beta-carotene) even increase mortality in certain types of cancers (GI, lung). Because some antioxidants may work via specific binding proteins, it is thought that certain antioxidants may target specific organs or conditions more efficiently. Antioxidant combinations take advantage of the fact that many antioxidants work synergistically, or in some cases, require each other's presence for proper function. These combinations typically contain vitamin A (or beta- carotene, or both), vitamin C, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, mixed carotenoids, mixed flavonoids, selenium, and so forth. 
Indications. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases, cognitive dysfunction (vitamin C, E, lipoic acid); diseases of aging, ischemic injuries, hepatic inflammation (silymarin, SAMe, vitamin E, zinc); osteoarthritis.
Toxicity. Varies according to compound. Combinations are generally safer when used according to manufacturer's directions. Alpha-lipoic acid is toxic to cats as compared with dogs or humans, and doses above 13 mg/kg may result in hepatotoxicty, anorexia, hypersalivation, ataxia, hyper-irritabiltiy, and perhaps chronic accumulation with eventual toxicity at lower doses. 
Bromelain and Other Proteolytic Enzymes Bromelain, like other digestive enzymes, enhances digestion of proteins in food, but it is not primarily used for this purpose. Studies in people have shown that bromelain is effective in reducing inflammation from traumatic injury and surgery. A combination of bromelain, trypsin, and rutin was found to produce significant improvements in people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Studies in people have also shown benefit in the treatment of sinusitis. Bromelain affects platelets and has an anticoagulant effect. Finally, bromelain and trypsin have been used as debriding agents, especially for cases of chronic otitis and for burns. A frequent objection to use of enzymes or other protein supplements is that stomach and upper GI enzymes would destroy them. While this may be true to an extent, it is now recognized that some intact protein does pass to the jejunem and can be absorbed systemically. Enteric-coated products were used in many of the studies on bromelain and may be an ideal form for clinical use. 
Use. Chronic inflammatory diseases (autoimmune?), musculoskeletal trauma, osteoarthritis.
Dose. Wobenzym at a dose proportional to the human labeled dose (about 1 tablet in meals per 10 - 15 lbs body weight daily). Bromelain is labeled in units of activity (GDU = gelatin dissolving units or MCU = milk clotting units). The more concentrated products contain at least 2000 MCU/gram. 
Lysine Lysine suppresses arginine levels required for herpesvirus recrudescence. Clinical trials in cats have shown benefit for herpes keratitis. 
Indications. Herpes keratitis and upper respiratory signs of herpesvirus infection.
Dose. 250 - 500 mg PO bid. A veterinary product in flavored paste form is now available. 
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Eicosapentanoic Acid [EPA] and Docosahexanoic Acid [DHA] in Fish Oil) Fish oil is a source of preformed EPA and DHA. These fatty acids modulate eicosanoid production; induce cell differentiation and apoptosis; ameliorate insulin resistance; and may reduce CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio. Alpha-linolenic acid is another omega-3 fatty acid contained in seeds and available from such sources as flax seed oil, hemp oil, and pumpkin seed oil. Most researchers believe that any effect ALA has as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent are due to its conversion to DHA. Cats do not possess the enzyme responsible for this conversion in people and dogs, and even in the latter two species, conversion is considered inefficient. 
Indications. Atopic dermatitis, cancer, chronic renal disease, many inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.
Toxicity. Possible coagulopathy, body smell. 
Dose. One extra strength capsule per 10 - 15 lbs; this is approximately 500 - 600 mg of combined EPA and DHA per capsule, resulting in a dose of 100 mg of EPA and DHA/kg BW. 
dl-Phenylalanine (DLPA) Actions. Precursor to L-dopa, NE, epinephrine; inhibits decarboxylation of endogenous opioids. There are few clinical trials confirming this activity, but clinical anecdotes have been very positive. 
Indications. Pain, arthritis, etc.
Dose. 250 - 500 mg bid-tid 
Probiotics and Fructo-oligosaccharides Probiotics are living organisms taken orally to influence the ecology and function of the gut. Current best evidence suggests that they are effective in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, infectious diarrhea, and inflammatory bowel disease. There is emerging evidence that proper gut ecology is important in the "immune education" process, and that probiotic supplementation, especially in the young, may help to reduce the incidence of atopy. Probiotics may work via competitive inhibition of enteropathogens, production of substances that suppress the growth of other bacterial species, through stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine production and by immunomodulation in the gut (which also has systemic immune effects). Various species of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterococcus, Saccharomyces, and Bacillus have been used in clinical trials ranging from the examination of growth enhancement and disease prevention in food animals to performance enhancement in horses. Different species may have different clinical effects, and the potential for pathogenic effects (especially with Enterococcus species) exists. In human medicine, one of the most promising products is Lactobacillus Strain GG. Multiple independent analyses have shown that quality control issues abound among this class of nutraceuticals; products very frequently contain either fewer viable organisms than promised on the label or in some cases, different organisms than labeled. On the other hand, some studies suggest that live organisms are not necessary for some of the beneficial effects.

Weese et al. determined that in pet foods containing probiotics, none of the tested products contained viable organisms. In another study, none of the veterinary probiotic supplements tested were accurately labeled.

Indications. IBD, food allergy, immune suppression, diarrhea, chronic antibiotic use, chronic medical disorders.
Dose. Proportional to human dose, though safe at much higher doses
Note. Quality control is a major determinant of efficacy and most products do not meet quality standards. 
HERBS Devil's Claw Tuber (Harpagophytum procumbens) This herb has been used traditionally for rheumatism, arthritis, digestive complaints, anorexia, labor pains, fever, and kidney and bladder ailments. Devil's claw has been investigated extensively in humans for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain, arthritis, and rheumatism. There is good evidence that dried powders and aqueous extracts providing over 50 mg of harpagoside daily are effective for pain relief in people (Gagnier, 2004; Chrubasik, 2004; Wegener, 2003). The activity of Devil's claw is still not well characterized, but one in vitro study showed that it suppressed PGE(2) synthesis and nitric oxide production by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enhancement of the cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression (Jang, 2003). A trial comparing a devil's claw formula with phenylbutazone was conducted in 20 horses with bone spavin. The other herbs in the granular formula included Ribes nigrum (black currant), Equisetum arvense (horsetail), and Salix alba (white willow). Ten horses were given phenylbutazone and 10 given the herbal formula. Horses were evaluated clinically by observing for gait asymmetry, irregularity on movement in a 6-meter circle, a flexion test, and radiographic comparison with the previous 6 months. Each test was rated 0 (undetectable lameness) to 4 (maximum lameness), and a composite score (with a maximum score of 12 for serious lameness) was given at each examination. Horses were given a composite score on days 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120. By day 120, the horses given phenylbutazone had a group score of 8.6, while those given the herbal formula had a score of 6; this was a statistically significant difference (Montavon, 1994).
Potential Veterinary Indications. Osteoarthritis, back pain, muscle pain (rheumatism), possibly as a tonic for older animals with flagging appetite; many types of pain. 
Contraindications, Toxicology, and Adverse Effects. AHPA Class 2d. Although one of the traditional indications for Devil's claw is dyspepsia and loss of appetite, use in the presence of gastric or duodenal ulcer is contraindicated. Diarrhea and GI distress are possible, but no serious adverse effects have been reported.
Dosage. Dried, powdered root: 0.5 - 6 g daily; tincture (1:5 in 40%): 0.25 - 2 ml tid; tincture (1:2): 0.5 - 4 ml tid; tincture (1:10 in 25%): 0.75 - 3 ml tid; Liquid extract (1:1 in 25%) 0.025 - 0.25 ml tid; decoction: boil 1/2 - 1 tsp in 1 cup water, simmer 10 - 15 minutes and administer 1/4 - 1 cup tid 
Corydalis Root (Corydalis ambigua, Corydalis yanhusuo, Corydalis turtschaninovii)
THP (tetrahydropalmatine) has analgesic, hypnotic, and sedative effects on the central nervous system. Studies suggest that THP is effective for relief of pain from dysmenorrhea, nerve pain, abdominal pain after childhood, and headache. Studies have focused mainly on this isolated constituent, however, the whole herb has been used as a traditional remedy for pain relief from "blood stagnation.". 
Potential Veterinary Indications. Pain, and perhaps mild anxiety and epilepsy. 
Contraindications, Toxicology, and Adverse Effects. Contraindicatied in pregnancy. THP has been found to have antihypertensive effects. Corydalis could potentially worsen weakened heart function in cardiac patients, due to calcium influx inhibition (Chan 1999). AHPA Class 2b due to emmenagogue and uterine stimulant effects. In addition, people taking corydalis can experience vertigo, fatigue, and nausea.
Dosage. For an analgesic or sedative effect, the dried powder is usually recommended at 5-10 g per day in several small doses for people. Alternatively, 10-20 ml per day of a 1:2 extract can be taken (Bone 1996). Animal doses at are proportionate to the human dose, by weight. 
Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale)
Ginger is a well-known anti-emetic that appears not to act centrally on the vomiting centre but may have a direct effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Double-blind randomized trials have shown it effective in decreasing seasickness, postoperative nausea, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and morning sickness. Ginger has also been shown to reduce symptoms of rheumatic, arthritic, and lower back pain in people. Sharma et al induced emesis in healthy mongrel dogs using cisplatin, 3 mg/kg IV. Different doses of ethanol and acetone extracts of ginger were tested, and compared to granisetron given at 0.5 mg/kg IV. Ginger administration significantly reduced the number of vomiting episodes at doses as low as 25 m/kg PO. The highest dose tested for both extracts was 200 mg/kg, which led to the fewest vomiting episodes, but a shorter latency in minutes to the first episode. The highest doses were most comparable to the antiemetic efficacy of granisetron (Sharma, 1997). 
Potential Veterinary Indications. Anti-emetic for use during chemotherapy or motion sickness, osteoarthritis.
Contraindications. Anticoagulant therapy, coagulation disorders, gallstones.
Toxicology and Adverse Effects. The Botanical Safety Handbook classes fresh and dried root separately. Fresh root is rated Class 1. Dried root is Class 2b, 2d as patients with gallstones must be treated with caution.
Dosage (From Greig, 1942). Powdered ginger: horses 0.5 - 1 oz; cattle 1-2 oz; sheep 1 - 2 dram; pigs: 0.5 - 1 oz; dogs 10 - 20 grains (0.65 - 1.3 g). Ginger tincture: horses 1 - 2 oz; dogs 3 - 5 minims (0.18 - 1.3 ml). 
Kava Root (Piper methysticum) 
Kava has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders for its tranquilizing and sedative effects. A traditional use in early American medicine was for "dysuria." A major review assessed the effectiveness and safety of kava extract for treating anxiety. All publications describing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of kava extract for anxiety were sought. Eleven trials with 645 participants met the inclusion criteria. The metaanalysis of six studies suggested a significant reduction in patients receiving kava extract compared with placebo (weighted mean difference: 5.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 8.8; P = 0.01; n = 345). Adverse events were mild, transient and infrequent. It was concluded that compared with placebo, kava extract is effective for symptomatic treatment option for anxiety and is relatively safe for short-term treatment (Pittler 2003).
Potential Veterinary Indications. Anxiety, interstitial cystitis in cats.
Contraindications. During pregnancy and lactation and in patients with endogenous depression or liver disease. The effectiveness of centrally acting drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates, and other psychopharmacological agents may be potentiated (Blumenthal 1998).
Toxicology and Adverse Effects. Kava is for cautious short-term use. It has been banned in some countries due to a series of reported cases of hepatitis associated with its use. A critical review of these 74 cases showed that only 4 of them could be attributed to kava with certainty (all of the others were alcoholics or taking potentially hepatotoxic pharmaceutical drugs). Only one of these four was taking the dose recommended by the German Commission E. This review can be found at the web site Heavy chronic consumption of kava is associated with a pellagroid dermopathy in people. Chronic administration may cause a transient, yellow discoloration of the skin and nails, which is reversible with discontinuation. 
Dosage. Horses: 1 - 2 tablespoons; Dogs: 50 mg/ 10 - 20 lbs; Cats: 25 mg/ 5 - 10 lbs. Horses suffering from tying-up syndrome can take 1 tablespoon four times a day. 
QUALITY CONTROL Quality control is a major concern with nutraceuticals, and poor quality supplements give poor clinical results. Independent analyses have found variable quality, including what appears to be fraudulent labeling in cases of the more expensive supplements. In the United States, the National Animal Supplement Council (NASC) is an industry group that has developed quality control standards, adverse event reporting, and continues dialogue with the Food and Drug Administration to confront regulatory questions and inconsistencies. Member companies agree to uphold good manufacturing processes and maintain adverse event reporting. A good resource for human supplements is For a reasonable subscription fee, the site provides results of tests for many popular supplements, allowing the practitioner to either stock or recommend trusted brand names. In general, veterinarians should strive to purchase and recommend only products made by NASC member companies.
Some Useful herbs and foods for pets
The most outstanding attributes of licorice root is it's action as an anti-inflammatory agent. In Chinese medicine, licorice root is commonly used as a liver detoxifier and in several studies it has been shown to benefit animals suffering from liver dama
For ringworm infections, thoroughly soak your companion with a strong, cooled sage tea twice daily. A strong sage tea or tincture can also be used to treat and prevent gingivitis[img=10x10]file:///C:/Users/User/AppData/Local/Packages/oice_16_974fa576_32c1d314_2db8/AC/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/img]and dental infections
1/4 teaspoon of marshmallow tea is good for lubricating and expelling fur balls in cats. You can also give 1/4 teaspoon of bran, psyllium[img=10x10]file:///C:/Users/User/AppData/Local/Packages/oice_16_974fa576_32c1d314_2db8/AC/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/img], or ground flaxseed to provide fiber and lubricating mucilage to help remove hair balls.

Yucca is commonly added to dog, cat, horse, or cattle feed to optimize the nutritional value of an animal's food, and to reduce unpleasant odors in urine and feces in house pets.

Working[img=10x10]file:///C:/Users/User/AppData/Local/Packages/oice_16_974fa576_32c1d314_2db8/AC/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/img]dogs and those who are subject to physiological stress benefit from hawthorn as a daily supplement, as do older animals who suffer from chronic heart problems.

It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas, and powdered Fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. The plant gives off ozone most readily.
Cleavers is used to increase circulation of lymph in impaired areas of the body. This action along with its mild astringency make it useful to speed healing of gastric ulcers, drainage of lymph engorged cysts, tumors and inflamed urinary tract, and upper digestive tract. In cats, these actions make cleavers a safe long-term aid in the treatment of feline lower urinary tract disease[img=10x10]file:///C:/Users/User/AppData/Local/Packages/oice_16_974fa576_32c1d314_2db8/AC/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/img](FLUTD), and the herb may also be useful for chronic low-grade kidney inflammation.

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