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Just before I give you some tips I must dispel one MYTH
If Fido doesnt like having teeth brushed here is a tip
by using raw chicken wings or raw meaty bones you are in fact doing this naturally. The bone becomes the tooth brush and the muscle and sinews become floss.

Dip your finger into some baking soda and rub gums n teeth or
1 tspoon fresh chopped mint
1 tspoon chopped parsley
1/4 tsp baking soda
2 tspoon coconut oil
warm through the coconut oil to make it pliable add all ingredients and mix well.
Place in a bowl and allow to harden.
you can either make it into small balls and use one daily to play with fido so they can munch on one from the freezer or
use one ball and give it to Fido to eat they will chew it anyway.
or you can smear a kids toothypeg bikkie with some of this mixture and allow fido to eat thru the day...

This will also keep breath fresh .
Understanding Your Doggies Teeth

The eruption of the deciduous (primary) teeth and their replacement by permanent teeth is a complicated process and the underlying physiology is still poorly understood. The deciduous teeth have a complete root system similar to permanent teeth. During the development of the permanent teeth the roots of the deciduous teeth are resorbed through the activity of odontoclasts, which seem to develop from undifferentiated cells in the pulp of the deciduous teeth . Abnormal eruption of deciduous teeth is often seen, especially in dogs, necessitating their removal. Attempts to remove a persistent deciduous tooth will often result in a fracture of the tooth, with a part of the root remaining in the bone. It was thought that this root would rapidly be resorbed, but this is no longer believed to be the case. Sometimes these retained root tips become infected and may cause a fistulous sinus tract to develop. It is therefore suggested that complete removal of the retained deciduous tooth root should be performed, which often requires a gingival flap to access the root. Care must be taken not to damage the permanent tooth, which lies extremely close to the deciduous root. Enamel of the permanent tooth develops within the first 3 months and damage to the permanent tooth germ within this time may result in enamel hypoplasia. The deciduous dentition should have been completely shed in cats and dogs by end of the 6th month, or slightly later in the smaller breeds of dogs. The most common problem is the persistence of the deciduous canine . In order to prevent serious complications (i.e. a cyst, sinus tract, abscess or malalignment of the permanent tooth) removal of the tooth by alveolotomy should be considered. When a deciduous root tip remains it still occupies a space next to the permanent tooth and can therefore affect the path of eruption of this tooth.When deciduous teeth erupt in the wrong position, the natural interlocking mechanism of upper and lower teeth can change the growth pattern of the jaw(s), which would normally have been determined by genetics to give a perfect bite with all the teeth interlocking correctly. If abnormal eruption of deciduous teeth is seen, then early extraction of some of these teeth, as early as 6-8 weeks, may prevent an acquired (non-genetic) prognathism or brachygnathism. The rule of thumb is to extract the deciduous teeth (incisors and/or canines) from the shorter jaw (upper or lower) that is being prevented from growing rostrally. By doing this it enables both the upper and lower jaws to grow normally, according to their genetic potential, without any mechanical interference. The absence of (anodontia) , or impaction of permanent teeth, is seen less often. If, however, a permanent tooth is absent, the deciduous tooth will often persist. The absence of the permanent tooth must be confirmed radiographically. Occasionally a persistent deciduous tooth will conceal a non-erupted permanent tooth. In this case extraction of the deciduous tooth will normally encourage the permanent tooth to erupt. If after 4 weeks no change is seen, the crown of the permanent tooth should be exposed surgically. The first premolars (P1) and third lower molars (M3) are single- cusped and single-rooted in dogs. Their small size and occasional absence indicates an evolutionary loss. Feline dentition is more widely reduced in number.
Many Kennel Clubs demand a full set of teeth including P1 and lower M3 for the pedigree of stud dogs. Odontological studies and biological facts have shown that P1 and lower M3 are the Wisdom teeth of the dog. They are currently undergoing a natural process of phylogenetical reduction and elimination. Since Kennel Clubs are fighting against Mother Nature in this matter, the clubs should be recommended to cancel this policy and accept dogs with missing P1‘s (only P1, and not P2, P3 or P4!!), as well as missing lower M3‘s, as fully licensed stud dogs. Ectopic teeth / tooth malformations Teeth that do not develop in the correct axial position, or develop in the wrong place, are called ectopic teeth. If they cannot be brought back into the right position with orthodontic methods, extraction is recommended in many cases. Developmental irregularities in shape, size, and functional morphology of teeth are most likely caused by trauma to tooth buds (“Turner-teeth“). They are often retained and extraction is indicated in most cases. If teeth are lying in the jawbone, more or less in their correct anatomical position but unerupted, these are called retained (or embedded) teeth . If presented at an early stage of development (5th-7th month) many cases can be treated with a simple surgical procedure: the gingiva is incised over the retained tooth, the tooth crown surgically debrided from bone rests and cellular layers of germ-cells, and the tooth slightly loosened with the help of elevators. This may re-induce the eruption process. Many cases will nevertheless not result in a perfect final functional and cosmetic position of the tooth, but will make the tooth move into an acceptable position. If the case is presented too late then fixation of periodontal ligament around the tooth will have formed an ankylosis which now prevents the natural growth of the tooth. As in human dentistry, these teeth could be moved out of their socket with the help of orthodontic devices, but since these devices are very delicate and need constant care and regulation, they are impractical in companion animals. Patients will damage them frequently which would result in an unacceptable number of anaesthetic procedures required for repair and readjustment. Surgical extraction of retained teeth is the recommended treatment, since these teeth can cause developmental cysts. If they are not extracted, radiographic control (once a year) is highly recommended to monitor their progress. The term pseudo- (or false) polyodontia refers to the presence of more than 42 teeth or 30 teeth in the mouth of puppies and kittens respectively, this includes some deciduous teeth but mainly it involves permanent teeth . Treatment consists of extraction of all deciduous teeth as soon as possible, since these can alter the correct position of the permanent dentition. Furthermore, the crowding between these teeth disturbs the natural selfcleaning mechanism of the mouth and causes periodontal problems. Polyodontia means the presence of more than 42 or 30 permanent teeth after total shedding of deciduous teeth in puppies and kittens respectively. In dogs this is mainly seen with the incisors (8 instead of 6), where treatment is often not required, since dogs, such as Bull Terriers, often develop a very harmonic arch of 8 incisors with a near-to-perfect occlusion. Many years ago I had a line removed due to the persistent complaining of a clients vet who was inaccurate in what information he gave that client, the client would not listen to my knowledge at all and her dog has continued to develop normally and has had as explained no issues at all. Owners cannot be blamed for not listening to a breeder but vets are far too quick to dive in and remove or want to frighten the daylights out of new owners to such an extent that these owners feel they need to believe a vet who in all likelihood has had no pups in his or her life ever and has never been with a breed for longer than a few weeks at initial exam . Additional premolars can be found in both dogs and cats. Occasionally the upper 3rd molar is present in puppies, which is an atavism, a phylogenetic regression to the original historical 44-teeth-dentition of all placental mammals. And, sometimes double canines develop in puppies and kittens. As a general rule those permanent teeth which are interdigitating better with the opposite dentition should be kept and the others extracted. In rare cases in both puppies and kittens two crowns and a common root develop (mostly incisors): extraction of a crown would destroy the root of the remaining tooth. Radiological evaluation is highly recommended if in doubt over the number of roots present. Due to defects of the ameloblasts the enamel layer of developing tooth buds can be damaged. While a general enamel hypoplasia (affecting most or all teeth) is caused by systematic disorders such as distemper (“distemper mouth“), other pathological conditions such as malabsorption syndrome, malnutrition etc. can cause similar pathology. If only one tooth - often the canine tooth - is affected, then trauma to the tooth bud within the first 3 months of life (the end of amelogenesis) is the likely cause. Trauma can be mechanical: i.e. interference with the deciduous canine while it is still in its socket results in irritation of the enamel producing cells (ameloblasts) on the surface of the permanent tooth bud. More common is an infection of the permanent tooth bud after fracture of the deciduous canine. Bacteria will migrate down in the open pulp canal, spread out over the apical delta to the surface of the permanent tooth bud and cause inflammatory destruction of ameloblasts. Therapy: fractured deciduous teeth should carefully be extracted as soon as possible, avoiding mechanical trauma to the permanent tooth bud. Sometimes trauma to tooth buds is iatrogenic: forceful extraction of deciduous teeth (i.e. extraction of base narrow deciduous canines) may result in mechanical trauma to the ameloblast layer of the permanent tooth buds. The treatments of choice to correct malpositioned deciduous canines in individuals of less than 3 months of age include crown reduction, endodontic therapy (vital pulpotomy) and restoration of the shortened deciduous canines Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion, and skeletal disorders. It is important to clarify whether the malocclusion is skeletal or dental in origin,or a combination of both. While different breeds of cats show hardly any deviation in their bite, the different breeds of dogs show marked differences in occlusion due to their diverse skeletal morphology. A common malocclusion of the permanent bite is base narrow (lingually displaced) mandibular canines. They can be caused by a misplaced tooth germ often combined with a persistent deciduous canine This is a malocclusion with the worst complications, as the tipped canines bite against the hard palate causing necrosis of the mucous membrane and the bone beneath. In extreme cases a fistula is created into the nasal cavity allowing food particles to be impacted into the nasal cavity causing severe nasal complications. The condition can be treated with an inclined plane or by fixing an expansion screw between the canines with acid-etch composite. The results of this condition are rapid and very rewarding. And, because of the natural dental interlocking of the canines, drifting back is almost impossible.
The development of the two dentitions, and the shedding of the deciduous teeth, are highly complicated biological mechanisms in puppies and kittens. It is recommended to monitor this process carefully and to advise the client to present their pet on a regular basis for examination, especially if anything abnormal is observed. Even minor developmental disturbances of the dentition can result in severe damage to the permanent teeth. Appropriate treatment at the right time can almost always avoid malocclusions and dental malformations.
Promoting Oral Health For Dogs
What help keep teeth healthy and white ?
First, diet plays a major role in the development of tartar on the teeth. Raw meaty bone diets keep wild carnivores’ teeth in top condition, and they can do the same for our domesticated carnivores. Even ground raw diets help prevent tartar build up, as the meat contains natural enzymes, and raw diets do not stick to the teeth, unlike diets that are high in starch. Kibble (dry food) has long been touted as helping to keep teeth clean because of its abrasive action. If you have ever watched your dog eat kibble, you have surely noticed that they don’t chew the stuff, they bolt it down whole. Some pets will still develop significant dental tartar, even when they eat raw diets and chew appropriately. Certain dogs seem to be predisposed to develop tartar. Short nosed breeds and toy breeds often have teeth that do not meet normally, such breeds will not effectively remove debris from their teeth even with vigorous chewing. Tartar development may also be related to health factors; ill animals seem to have more tartar, and animals who respond to homeopathic treatment often have less tartar. This could be due to to more vigorous chewing by healthy animals, or it could be related to changes in saliva quantity, gum health, or pH in the mouth
It was proven that dogs would derive the health benefits obtained by humans from these foods. Strawberries are one of the fruits safe for dogs. This fruit contains antioxidants that slow down the aging process by reducing degenerative disease. These antioxidants have reduced the risk of canine chronic diseases as well. The natural anti-inflammatory agents of this fruit have helped canine suffering from arthritis and from other musculoskeletal diseases. The soluble content of the fruit promotes the dog’s intestinal health. This fruit contains an enzyme that breaks down the tartar and keeps the dog’s teeth white. Vitamin C is on the top of the list of vitamin content of strawberries. Vitamin C strengthens a dog’s immune system. Just don’t overdo it, the fruit is also high in sugar and will cause obesity, too many may also encourage loose stools, so moderation is the key as always.
Banana is a deep green fruit that turns to yellow or red when ripe is a good source of fiber. This fruit that comes in its own disposable wrapper contain almost no fat, very low in sodium and loaded with potassium. Banana provides vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese and folate… all necessary in promoting the health of the pet. Banana is an energy food because of the soluble carbohydrate it contains. Again moderation is key .
Bones: For dogs, chewing on a large/size-appropriate REAL bone after meals for about 10 to 20 minutes reduces plaque buildup, especially in the upper and lower molars. I recommend this method a few times a week. After 10-20 minutes, remove the bone, wash, then place in ziplock bag or tupperware and store in the fridge. Boiling the bone first will help soften it. Always use supervision when allowing your dog to chew on bones.
Mix the following together and keep in a small glass jar, and use to apply to teeth and gums. This mixture works well for gum disease, and softens the plaque over time, while also controlling the risk of bacteria and gum disease. (Do not add this mixture to water bowls for ingestion).
• 2 oz Hydrogen peroxide (3%)
• 2 oz Aloe Vera juice
If your pet suffers from bad breath, add one of the following to the above mixture:
• Baking soda (one tablespoon)
• Liquid chlorophyll (1 teaspoon)
Application: Apply to teeth and gums, especially the upper molars to control plaque. Use a gauze sponge and soak in the mixed solution, then briskly rub onto stained teeth or plaque. Do this several times a week, and more often if your pet has a lot of plaque build-up. On small dogs and cats, use a Q-tip dipped in the solution, then apply to the gums, teeth, and plaque.
After applying the solution every few days to the gums, teeth, and plaque for 2 -3 weeks, you’ll be able to then scrape the plaque right off the affected teeth, using your fingernails, a soft towel, or even a Q-tip.
Kelp has been used to reduce dental plaque and tartar (calculus) in dogs for several years now, and the results have been impressive. ProDen, the Sweden based manufacturer of PlaqueOff, has conducted extensive trial studies to show that Ascophyllum nosodum, a common brown kelp found in many oceans of the world, can help to reduce plaque and tartar buildup in dogs within just a few weeks. A study of the oral benefits of seaweed conducted at Newcastle University in England have identified Bacillus lichenformis, a breed of beneficial bacteria that resides on the surfaces of seaweed, as a powerful anti-plaque agent in the mouth.
After entering the mouth Bacillus lichenformis completes its lifecycle and releases an enzyme that breaks down the bacterial biofilm that causes dental plaque and the calculus we know as tartar. Kelp also contains a multitude of important trace minerals that support healthy teeth and gums, along with alginates— polysaccharide constituents that are known for their slimy, viscous properties. These polysaccharides carry their own antibacterial activities into the mouth as well, creating athin coating of film on the teeth and gums that helps to protect and support healthy bacterial balances. Animal Essentials Inc has now just released a new product calledSeaDent for Dogs, which combines the healthful, mineral rich attributes of Laminaria digitata kelp with a guaranteed measure of the protease enzyme produced by Bacillus licheniformis. SeaDent is also fortified with supplemental doses of four other plaque-fighting enzymes, including amylase (to break down carbohydrates and starches between the teeth), cellulose (to break down plant materials/vegetable particles), papain (to aid in the breakdown of meats) and lysozyme— to supplement the antibacterial enzymes that dogs naturally carry in their saliva. Together, the formulation offers reliable, easy-to-feed and affordable mitigation and prevention of plaque forming bacteria.
A few weeks ago I told all I was running a trial on elerly dogs or dogs that had diet changes due to illness at some point (ie meha) so teeth started to look bit yuk, here is my findings

Dalma aged 9 Teeth , Gingivitis signs of placque tartar and some early decay
Bazey aged 4 Teeth Excellent minimal placque canines
Cilla aged 9 Came back thin but signs of eating wrong diet teeth very poor, signs of decay and gingivitis
Meha Aged 5 Teeth Excellent early placque due to diet change when had meningitis

All used daily plaque off
Also Teeth gel aplied once daily

EXCELLENT RESULTS , Back teeth on all dogs totally clear 0 decay
Bazey Meha canine plaque now gone 9 decay
Dalma 90 % clear of all plaque now and 0 gingivitis
and Cilla 80% clear of all plaque and 0 gingivitis

Reasons behind this 2 week trial

Older dogs dont do well under annsthesia , risks higher so in order to limit the necessity in future this trial ws done.

I am please with results so far and can recommend using both
How to control tooth decay , indeed can it be possible ?
Plaque accumulation Plaque will form without any food passing through the mouth as all components needed are present in the mouth. Food, especially sticky food or carbohydrates, can provide additional raw material for greater and faster build up of plaque. Chewing activity mechanically dislodges plaque from some tooth surfaces but not plaque stagnation areas. Plaque is only dislodged from the tooth surfaces which the food slides across as the tooth bites into it – this tends to be more at the top of the crown rather than the areas near to the gumline. Ideally the physical properties of the diet will maximise plaque removal by being tough yet deformable. Tooth brushing will always be superior in plaque removal as even the most ideal chewing substrate will not contact all tooth surfaces. It is thought that there may be thresholds, which vary in each individual, of the amounts of plaque which leads to gingivitis and periodontal disease. What has yet to be established is the range and average values of these thresholds for each breed. Minimising plaque presence is the mainstay of managing periodontal disease. Having some actual values would be helpful in determining which methods of plaque removal are most worthwhile in clinical management.
2) Physiological exercise Many body components atrophy if not used. Conversely, regular physiological stimulation leads to strengthening and good health. The tooth is attached to the bony socket by the periodontal ligament with ligament insertion into the bone and root surface cementum. The gingival is attached to the bone and tooth by connective tissue containing fibres. If these tissues are positively stimulated as a function of chewing the potential tissue generation may counter their destruction due to periodontal disease. Without stimulation the atrophy can only accelerate periodontal disease progression. There is a complete lack of studies to support this theory. The anecdotal notion that cats which hunt and dog’s that chew recreationally get less gum disease may be more due to the physiological stimulation rather than the cleaning activity.
3) Nutrition It is known that many illnesses lead to a more rapidly progressive periodontal disease. Certain nutritional deficiencies have been shown to harm periodontal health. Vitamin C deficiency causing scurvy severely affects the gums. The requirement of adequate essential amino acids, Zn, Vitamin E, Folic acid, correct CaTongue has been shown to affect periodontal health. It is reasonable to assume that optimal nutrition equates to optimal periodontal tissue health. It is possible that aspects of dietary requirements for periodontal health have yet to be identified which makes it difficult to ensure their provision. Is the diet the cause or can diet prevent periodontal disease? The answer to both these questions is an emphatic NO. Plaque causes periodontal disease and some plaque will accumulate and remain on the teeth whatever the diet. If diet can prevent periodontal disease, in dogs or cats, it should be possible to find or create a population without periodontal disease. I challenge anyone to produce such a population. Diet can surely influence periodontal disease but the data to show which aspect gives which benefits is patchy and clouded by strong but unproven personal opinions. I have repeatedly encountered misinterpretation; the worst being that little or no calculus on the teeth means no periodontal disease.
Diet options for pet dogs and cats
1) Commercial (pre-prepared) diets a) wet foods (Canned, pouches etc) b)dry (kibble) foods – regular c)dry (kibble) foods – special dental diets
2) Home prepared a) to owners spec e.g. as before commercial pet food was made b) to BARF recommendations
3) Wild diet – exactly as a wild animal equivalent - not a practical option for pets There are many pros and cons for each type of diet. Much more hard data needs to be established to know which aspects are the more important. There are certainly more questions than answers and two questions which need consideration are;
1) Is the focus on “best” diet actually a significant factor in the complete management of periodontal disease ? Or should endeavours be directed into other means of plaque control and making the host most resistant ?
2) Is it appropriate to compare domesticated pets with all their differences to their wild animal ancestors ? There are many differences - genetics, anatomy, environment, husbandry, lifespan etc

1 Open doggys mouth
2 Look inside at the gums , they should be PINK NOT RED
3 Open top lip wide to see the teeth all of them
4 If you see any discolouration you must treat.

Discolouration will lead to decay that can cause heart disease, your dog DOES NOT NEED TO GO TO THE VET TO GET CLEANED !

Plaque off in the food daily follow instructions
Increase bones in the daily food menu hrd raw meaty bones will act as a doggy tooth brush and the fat will act as floss, NEVER leave the dog alone with a bone .
Use a good gel that you simply apply onto the gums as this will alter the PH level in doggy mouth and the dog licks it so in effect the tongue is now a finger brush,

Fortunately, a number of herbs can be used to speed up the healing process and to prevent recurrence:

Oregon grape:
Use a tincture of Oregon grape to inhibit bacterial growth. Use a cotton swab to liberally apply the tincture directly to your dog's gums. Oregon grape is antiseptic and also promotes new gum tissue growth. Other herbs with similar properties include Goldenseal, and Myrrh.

If the teeth are infected and your dog is weak and thin as a result of his dental problem, try apply a tincture of echinacea directly to your dog's gums directly with a cotton swab.

If your dog has bleeding gums, apply a tincture of calendula directly to the gums. Calendula is excellent for healing wounds and stopping bleeding.

Some herbs are well known for their abilities to promote dental health and fresh breath. For example:

Fennel - Fennel is rich in vitamin C, has anti-inflammatory properties, and can help fight gingivitis and freshen your dog's breath.

Parsley - Parsley also has potent antimicrobial properties and is commonly used as a breath freshener.

Dill - Dill has potent antimicrobial properties that helps fight infections.

The good news is, all these culinary herbs can easily be fed to your dog. Just sprinkle some of these herbs on his food every day!
During the next several months, your puppy will begin to lose her baby, or deciduous, teeth. They fall out to make way for her adult teeth. You might find them on the carpet or lodged in her favorite chew toy, or you may not find them at all. Offer appropriate chew toys to ease her teething. An ice cube treat may be greatly appreciated now

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